Sunday, 2 October 2011

Mahatma Gandhi - 100 important events - a timeline


Mahatma Gandhi's life - 100 Important Events
1
1869
Born at Porbandar, Kathiawad, Father: Karamchand Mother: Putlibai
2
1876
Primary schooling in Rajkot
3
1881
Started high school in Rajkot
4
1883
Married to Kasturba
5
1887
Passed matriculation examination at Ahmedabad and entered Samaldas College, Bhavnagar, Kathiawad
6
1891
Sailed from Bombay for England to study law
7
1891 
Returned to India after being called to bar. Began practice of law in Bombay and Rajkot
8
1893
Sailed for South Africa to become lawyer for an Indian firm
9
1893
Faced color discrimination / apartheid
10
 1894
Drafted first petition sent by the Indians to a South African legislature
11
 1894
Organised Natal Indian Congress
12
1896
Returned to India for six months to bring back his wife and two children to Natal
13
 1896
Reached South Africa with family. Was mobbed when he disembarked at Durban for his writings about South Africa when he was in India
14
1899
Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for British in Boer War
15
1901
Moved back to India. Promised to return to South Africa if Indian community needed his services again
16
1901–1902
Attended Indian National Congress meeting in Calcutta, and opened law office in Bombay
17
1902
Returned to South Africa after urgent request from Indian community
18
1903
Opened law office in Johannesburg
19
1904
Established  Indian Opinion, a weekly
20
 1904
Organised Phoenix Settlement near Durban, after reading Ruskin's Unto This Last
21
1906
Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for Zulu "Rebellion"
22
1906 
Took vow of continence for life
23
1906 
First satyagraha campaign in Johannesburg in protest against proposed Asiatic ordinance directed against Indian immigrants in Transvaal
24
1906 
Sailed for England to present Indians’ case to Colonial Secretary
25
1907
Organised satyagraha against Compulsory Registration of Asians ("The Black Act")
26
1908
Stood trial for instigating satyagraha and was sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Johannesburg jail (his first imprisonment)
27
1908 
Summoned to consult General Smuts at Pretoria; compromise reached; was released from jail
28
1908 
Attacked and wounded by Indian extremist, Mir Alam, for reaching settlement with Smuts
29
1908 
Second satyagraha campaign began with bonfire of registration certificates after Smuts broke agreement
30
1908 
Arrested for not having certificate, and sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Volksrust jail
31
1909
Sentenced to three months’ imprisonment in Volksrust and Pretoria jails
32
1909 
Sailed for England again to present Indians' case
33
1909 
Returned to South Africa, wrote 'Hind Swaraj' on the way
34
1910
Established Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg
35
1913 
Helped campaign against nullification of marriages not conducted as per Christian rites
36
 1913
Third satyagraha campaign begun by leading "great march" of 2,000 Indian miners from Newcastle across Transvaal border in Natal
37
 1913
Arrested three times in four days  (at Palmford, Standerton, and Teakworth) and sentenced at Dundee to nine months' imprisonment; tried at Volksrust in second trial and sentenced to three months' imprisonment with his European co-workers, Polak and Kallenbach.
38
 1913
Released unconditionally in expectation of a compromise settlement, C.F. Andrews and W.W. Pearson having been sent by Indians in India to negotiate
39
1914
Underwent fourteen days' fast for moral lapse of members of Phoenix Settlement
40
 1914
Satyagraha campaign suspended, with pending agreement between Smuts, C.F. Andrews, and Gandhi, and with ultimate passage of Indian Relief Act
41
 1914
Left South Africa
42
 1914
Organised Indian Ambulance Corps in England
43
1915 
Established Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, near Ahmedabad, and soon admitted an untouchable family. The ashram was moved in 1917 to a new site on Sabarmati River
44
1916
Gave speech at opening of Hindu University at Benares
45
 1917
Led successful satyagraha campaign for rights of peasants on indigo plantations in Champaran. Defied an order to leave the area , was arrest at Motihari and tried, but case was withdrawn. Mahadev Desai joined him at Champaran
46
1918
Led strike of mill workers at Ahmedabad. Mill owner agreed to arbitration after his three-day fast (his first fast in India)
47
 1918
Led satyagraha campaign for peasants in Kheda
48
1918 
Attended Viceroy's War Conference  at Delhi and agreed for recruitment of Indians for World War I
49
1919
Rowlatt Act (perpetuating withdrawal of civil liberties for seditious crimes) passed, and first all-India satyagraha campaign conceived
50
1919 
Organised "nation-wide hartal" against Rowlatt Act
51
1919 
Arrested at Kosi near Delhi on way to Punjab and escorted back to Bombay, but never tried
52
 1919
Fasted at Sabarmati for three days in penitence for violence and suspended satyagraha campaign, which he called a “Himalayan miscalculation" because people were not disciplined enough
53
 1919
Became the editor of English weekly, Young India, and Gujarati weekly, Navajivan
54
1920
Elected president of All-India Home Rule League
55
 1920
Successfully urged resolution for  a satyagraha campaign of non-cooperation at Muslim Conference at Allahabad and at Congress sessions at Calcutta and Nagpur
56
1920 
Gave up Kaisar-i-Hind medal. Second all-India satyagraha campaign started
57
 1921
Presided at bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay.
58
1921 
Resolved to wear only a loin-cloth in devotion to Khadi and simplicity
59
 1921
Fasted at Bombay for five days because of communal rioting following visit of Prince of Wales
60
1921 
Mass Civil Disobedience. Gandhi invested with "sole executive authority" on behalf of Congress.
61
1922
Civil disobedience movement is suspended following violence at Chauri Chaura and undertook five-day fast of penance at Bardoli
62
1922 
Arrested at Sabarmati in charge of sedition in Young India. Pleaded guilty at the "great trial" in Ahmedabad. Sentenced to six years' imprisonment in Yeravda jail
63
1923
Wrote Satyagraha in South Africa and part of his autobiography in prison
64
1924
Was operated on for appendicitis and unconditionally released from prison
65
1924 
Began 21-day "great fast" at Mohammed Ali's home near Delhi as penance for communal riots between Hindus andMuslims, especially at Kohat
66
 1924
Presided over Congress session at Belgaum as president
67
1925 
Announced one-year political silence and immobility at Congress session at Cawnpore (Kanpur)
68
1928
Moved compromise resolution at Congress session at Calcutta, calling for complete independence within one year, or else the beginning of another all-Indian satyagraha campaign
69
 1929
Congress session at Lahore declared 'complete independence' and a boycott of the legislature and declared January 26 as National Independence Day
70
1930
Set out from Sabamarti with 79 volunteers on historic salt march 200 miles to sea at Dandi
71
1930 
Broke salt law by picking salt up at seashore
72
 1931
Gandhi-Irwin (Viceroy) Pact signed, Civil Disobedience ended
73
1931 
Attended the second Round Table Conference. Resided at Kingsley Hall in London slums, broadcast to America, visited universities, met celebrities
74
1931 
Traveled to Switzerland, met Romain Rolland, met Mussolini in Italy
75
1932
Arrested in Bombay with Sardar Patel and detained without trial at Yeravda prison
76
1932 
Began "perpetual fast unto death" while in prison in protest of British action giving separate electorates to untouchables
77
1932 
Concluded "epic fast” with historic cell scene in presence of Tagore after British accepted "Poona Pact"
78
1933
Began weekly publication of Harijan in place of Young India
79
1933 
Sentenced to one year's imprisonment at Yeravda. Started a fast against refusal of permission to work against untouchability while in prison; taken to hospital on the fifth day a, unconditionally released on eighth day
80
1933 
Began ten-month tour of every province in India to help end untouchability
81
1933 
Kasturba arrested and imprisoned for sixth time in two years
82
 1934
Fasted at Wardha ashram for seven days against intolerance of opponents of the movement against untouchability
83
1934 
Launched All-India Village Industries Association
84
1940
Launched limited, individual civil-disobedience campaign against Britain's refusal to allow Indians to express their opinions regarding World War II
85
1942 
Met Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi but called his proposals "a post-dated cheque". Proposals were ultimately rejected by Congress
86
 1942
Congress passed "Quit India" resolution - the final nation-wide satyagraha campaign - with Gandhi as leader
87
 1942
Arrested with other Congress leaders and Kasturba and imprisoned at Aga Khan Palace near Poona
88
1943
Began 21-day fast at Aga Khan Palace to end deadlock of negotiations between Viceroy and Indian leaders
89
1944 
After decline in health, was released unconditionally from detention
90
1946
Conferred with British Cabinet Mission in New Delhi
91
 1946
Toured villages in East Bengal to quell communal rioting over Muslim representation in provisional government
92
1947
Toured Bihar to ease Hindu-Muslim tension
93
 1947
Began conferences in New Delhi with Lord Mountbatten
94
 1947
Opposed Congress decision to accept division of country into India and Pakistan
95
 1947
Fasted and prayed to combat riots in Calcutta as India was partitioned and granted independence
96
 1947
Fasted for three days to stop communal violence in Calcutta
97
 1947
Visited Delhi to stop rioting and to visit camps of refugees (Hindus and Sikhs from the Punjab)
98
1948
Fasted for five days in Delhi for communal unity
99
 1948
Bomb exploded in midst of his prayer meeting at Birla House, Delhi
100
 1948
Assassinated in 78th year at Birla House by Nathuram Vinayak Godse

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